Computer programming. We wanted to build a system that could be programmed easily without a lot of esoteric training and which leveraged today’s standard practice. So even though we found that C++ was unsuitable, we designed Java as closely to C++ as possible in order to make the system more comprehensible. Java omits many rarely used, poorly understood, confusing features of C++ that, in our experience, bring more grief than benefit. The syntax for Java is, indeed, a cleaned-up version of the syntax for C++. There is no need for header files, pointer arithmetic (or even a pointer syntax), structures, unions, operator overloading, virtual base classes, and so on. (See the C++ notes interspersed throughout the text for more on the differences between Java and C++.) The designers did not, however, attempt to fix all of the clumsy features of C++. For example, the syntax of the switch statement is unchanged in Java.
If you know C++, you will find the transition to the Java syntax easy. If you are used to a visual programming environment (such as Visual Basic), you will not find Java simple. There is much strange syntax (though it does not take long to get the hang of it). More importantly, you must do a lot more programming in Java. The beauty of Visual Basic is that its visual design environment almost automatically provides a lot of the infrastructure for an application. The equivalent functionality must be programmed manually, usually with a fair bit of code, in Java. There are, however, third-party development environments that provide “drag-and-drop”-style program development. Another aspect of being simple is being small.
One of the goals of Java is to enable the construction of software that can run stand-alone in small machines. The size of the basic interpreter and class support is about 40K; the basic standard libraries and thread support (essentially a self-contained micro kernel) add another 175K. This was a great achievement at the time. Of course, the library has since grown to huge proportions. There is now a separate Java Micro Edition with a smaller library, suitable for embedded devices. Object-Oriented Simply stated, object-oriented design is a technique for programming that focuses on the data (= objects) and on the interfaces to that object.
To make an analogy with carpentry, an “object-oriented” carpenter would be mostly concerned with the chair he was building, and secondarily with the tools used to make it; a “non-object-oriented” carpenter would think primarily of his tools. The object-oriented facilities of Java are essentially those of C++. Object orientation has proven its worth in the last forty years, and it is inconceivable that a modern programming language would not use it. Indeed, the object-oriented features of Java are comparable to those of C++. The major difference between Java and C++ lies in multiple inheritance, which Java has replaced with the simpler concept of interfaces, and in the Java metaclass model (which we discuss in Chapter 5).
Note If you have no experience with object-oriented programming languages, you will want to carefully read Chapter 4 through Chapter 6. These chapters explain what object-oriented programming is and why it is more useful for programming sophisticated projects than are traditional, procedure-oriented languages like C or Basic.
Network-Savvy Java has an extensive library of routines for coping with TCP/IP protocols like HTTP and FTP. Java applications can open and access objects across the Net via URLs with the same ease as when accessing a local file system. We have found the networking capabilities of Java to be both strong and easy to use.
Anyone who has tried to do Internet programming using another language will revel in how simple Java makes many onerous tasks, such as opening a socket connection. (We cover networking in Volume II of this book.) The remote method invocation mechanism enables communication between distributed objects (also covered in Volume II).
Robust Java is intended for writing programs that must be reliable in a variety of ways. Java puts a lot of emphasis on early checking for possible problems, later dynamic (run time) checking, and eliminating situations that are error-prone. . . . The single biggest difference between Java and C/C++ is that Java has a pointer model that eliminates the possibility of overwriting memory and corrupting data. This feature is also very useful. The Java compiler detects many problems that, in other languages, would show up only at run time. As for the second point, anyone who has spent hours chasing memory corruption caused by a pointer bug will be very happy with this feature of Java. If you are coming from a language like Visual Basic that doesn’t explicitly use pointers, you are probably wondering why this is so important. C programmers are not so lucky.
They need pointers to access strings, arrays, objects, and even files. In Visual Basic, you do not use pointers for any of these entities, nor do you need to worry about memory allocation for them. On the other hand, many data structures are difficult to implement in a pointer less language. Java gives you the best of both worlds. You do not need pointers for everyday constructs like strings and arrays. You have the power of pointers if you need it—for example, for linked lists. And you always have complete safety because you can never access a bad pointer or make memory allocation errors, and you don’t have to protect against memory leaking away.
Secure Java is intended to be used in networked/distributed environments. Toward that end, a lot of emphasis has been placed on security. Java enables the construction of virus-free, tamper free systems. In the first edition of Core Java we said: “Well, one should ‘never say never again,’” and we turned out right. Not long after the first version of the Java Development Kit was shipped, a group of security experts at Princeton University found subtle bugs in the security features of Java 1.0. Sun Micro systems has encouraged research into Java security, making publicly available the specification and implementation of the virtual machine and the security libraries. Computer programming made easy.
They have fixed all known security bugs quickly. In any case, Java makes it extremely difficult to outwit its security mechanisms. The bugs found so far have been very technical and few in number. From the beginning, Java was designed to make certain kinds of attacks impossible, among them: • Overrunning the run time stack—a common attack of worms and viruses • Corrupting memory outside its own process space • Reading or writing files without permission A number of security features have been added to Java over time. Since version 1.1, Java has the notion of digitally signed classes (see Volume II). With a signed class, you can be sure of who wrote it. If you trust the author of the class, the class can be allowed more privileges on your machine. Computer programming made easy
Note A competing code delivery mechanism from Microsoft based on its ActiveX technology relies on digital signatures alone for security. Clearly this is not sufficient—as any user of Microsoft’s own products can confirm, programs from well-known vendors do crash and create damage. Java has a far stronger security model than that of ActiveX because it controls the application as it runs, and stops it from wreaking havoc. Computer programming made easy.
Architecture-Neutral The compiler generates an architecture-neutral object file format—the compiled code is executable on many processors, given the presence of the Java run time system. The Java compiler does this by generating byte code instructions which have nothing to do with a particular computer architecture. Rather, they are designed to be both easy to interpret on any machine and easily translated into native machine code on the fly. This is not a new idea. More than forty years ago, both Niklaus Wirth’s original implementation of Pascal and the UCSD Pascal system used the same technique. Of course, interpreting byte codes is necessarily slower than running machine instructions at full speed, so it isn’t clear that this is even a good idea. However, virtual machines have the option of translating the most frequently executed byte code sequences into machine code—a process called just-in-time compilation. This strategy has proven so effective that even Microsoft’s .NET platform relies on a virtual machine. Java’s virtual machine has other advantages. It increases security because it can check the behavior of instruction sequences. Some programs even produce byte codes on the fly, dynamically enhancing the capabilities of a running program.
Portable Unlike C and C++, there are no “implementation-dependent” aspects of the specification. The sizes of the primitive data types are specified, as is the behavior of arithmetic on them. For example, an int in Java is always a 32-bit integer. In C/C++, int can mean a 16-bit integer, a 32-bit integer, or any other size that the compiler vendor likes. The only restriction is that the int type must have at least as many bytes as a short int and cannot have more bytes than a long int. Having a fixed size for number types eliminates a major porting headache. Binary data is stored and transmitted in a fixed format, eliminating confusion about byte ordering. Strings are saved in a standard Unicode format. The libraries that are a part of the Computer system define portable interfaces. For example, there is an abstract Window class and implementations of it for UNIX, Windows, and the Macintosh. Computer programming made easy.
As anyone who has ever tried knows, it is an effort of heroic proportions to write a program that looks good on Windows, the Macintosh, and ten flavors of UNIX. Java 1.0 made the heroic effort, delivering a simple toolkit that provided common user interface elements on a number of platforms. Unfortunately, the result was a library that, with a lot of work, could give barely acceptable results on different systems. (And there were often different bugs on the different platforms’ graphics implementations.) But it was a start. There are many applications in which portability is more important than user interface slickness, and these applications did benefit from early versions of Java. By now, the user interface toolkit has been completely rewritten so that it no longer relies on the host user interface. The result is far more consistent and, we think, more attractive than in the earlier versions of Java.
Interpreted. The Java interpreter can execute Java byte codes directly on any machine to which the interpreter has been ported. Since linking is a more incremental and lightweight process, the development process can be much more rapid and exploratory. Incremental linking has advantages, but its benefit for the development process is clearly overstated. Early Java development tools were, in fact, quite slow. Today, the byte codes are translated into machine code by the just-in-time compiler.
High-Performance While the performance of interpreted byte codes is usually more than adequate, there are situations where higher performance is required.
The byte codes can be translated on the fly (at run time) into machine code for the particular CPU the application is running on. In the early years of Java, many users disagreed with the statement that the performance was “more than adequate.” Today, however, the just-in-time compilers have become so good that they are competitive with traditional compilers and, in some cases, even outperform them because they have more information available. For example, a just-in-time compiler can monitor which code is executed frequently and optimize just that code for speed. A more sophisticated optimization is the elimination (or “in lining”) of function calls. The just-in-time compiler knows which classes have been loaded. It can use in lining when, based upon the currently loaded collection of classes, a particular function is never overridden, and it can undo that optimization later if necessary. Computer programming made easy.
Multi threaded [The] benefits of multi threading are better interactive responsiveness and real-time behavior. If you have ever tried to do multi threading in another language, you will be pleasantly surprised by how easy it is in Java. Threads in Java can take advantage of multiprocessor systems if the base operating system does so. On the downside, thread implementations on the major platforms differ widely, and Java makes no effort to be platform-independent in this regard. Only the code for calling multi threading remains the same across machines; Java offloads the implementation of multi threading to the underlying operating system or a thread library. Nonetheless, the ease of multi threading is one of the main reasons why Java is such an appealing language for server-side development. Computer programming made easy.
Dynamic In a number of ways, Java is a more dynamic language than C or C++. It was designed to adapt to an evolving environment. Libraries can freely add new methods and instance variables without any effect on their clients. In Java, finding out run time type information is straightforward. This is an important feature in the situations where code needs to be added to a running Computer program. A prime example is code that is downloaded from the Internet to run in a Computer browser. In Java 1.0, finding out run time type information was anything but straightforward, but current versions of Java give the programmer full insight into both the structure and behavior of its objects. This is extremely useful for systems that need to analyze objects at run time, such as Java GUI builders, smart debuggers, pluggable components, and object databases.