2017

law and computers

This section gives a short history of Java’s evolution. It is based on various published sources (most importantly an interview with Java’s creators in the July 1995 issue of Sun World’s online magazine). Java goes back to 1991, when a group of Sun engineers, led by Patrick Naughton and James Gosling (a Sun Fellow and
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computer

Computer programming. We wanted to build a system that could be programmed easily without a lot of esoteric training and which leveraged today’s standard practice. So even though we found that C++ was unsuitable, we designed Java as closely to C++ as possible in order to make the system more comprehensible. Java omits many rarely
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self defense

The Clinton administration’s 2000 document on security strategy proceeded to an even more explicit formulation: “Whenever possible, we use law enforcement, diplomatic, and economic tools to wage the fight against terrorism.” Observing that those tools would not always be adequate, the document asserted that “[a]s long as terrorists continue to target American citizens, we reserve
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law

How international law seeks to define, and limit, the right to self-defence has been analysed through the ages.5 It is not the intention of this article either to 4 Anticipatory self-defence allows for reaction when an attack is imminent. The UN Security Council supports this interpretation of self-defence, see Report of the High Level Panel
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law

One of the most important questions post 9/11 is how a nation state defends itself against an unseen enemy. How a nation state that believes in the rule of law and morality in armed conflict prevents attacks against its innocent citizens is our focus. Self-defence, or active pre-emptive self-defence, against the unseen enemy is extraordinarily
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law

  We have made clear that our responses will be proportionate and in accordance with our international legal obligations. But we will not let the less scrupulous think we do not mean business, or simplify an aggressor’s calculations by announcing how we would respond in particular circumstances. The only certainty we should offer is that
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self defense

    The initial assertions of a right of preemptive self-defense by the Bush administration in 2002 were cast more broadly than those of its predecessors. Even though the broader claim was provoked and conditioned by the attacks of September 11, 2001, its open-textured formulation could be interpreted to include surprise attacks on other states.
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law

In 1837, US Secretary of State Daniel Webster articulated a definition of self defence, which evolved into customary international law.16 Webster’s definition followed what has come to be known as the Caroline incident. The Caroline was a US steamboat attempting to transport supplies to Canadian insurgents.17 A British force interrupted the Caroline’s voyage, shot at
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Journal On Law

The Security Council has been skeptical about explicit unilateral claims of preemptive self-defense. In 1981 the Council condemned Israel’s preemptive strike against Iraq, 4 in part as follows: Deeply concerned about the danger to international peace and security created by the premeditated Israeli air attack on Iraqi nuclear installations on 7 June 1981, which could
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